Friday, November 24

Tag: ssd

PostgreSQL vs. Linux kernel versions

PostgreSQL vs. Linux kernel versions

2ndQuadrant, Featured, PostgreSQL, Tomas' PlanetPostgreSQL
I've published multiple benchmarks comparing different PostgreSQL versions, as for example the performance archaeology talk (evaluating PostgreSQL 7.4 up to 9.4), and all those benchmark assumed fixed environment (hardware, kernel, ...). Which is fine in many cases (e.g. when evaluating performance impact of a patch), but on production those things do change over time - you get hardware upgrades and from time to time you get an update with a new kernel version. For hardware upgrades (better storage, more RAM, faster CPUs, ...), the impact is usually fairly easy to predict, and moreover people generally realize they need to assess the impact by analyzing the bottlenecks on production and perhaps even testing the new hardware first. But for what about kernel updates? Sadly we usually don't do much benchmarking in this area. The assumption is mostly that new kernels are better than older ones (faster, more efficient, scale to more CPU cores). But is it really true? And how big is the difference? For example what if you upgrade a kernel from 3.0 to 4.7 - will that affect the performance, and if yes, will the performance improve or not? (more…)

Tables and indexes vs. HDD and SSD

2ndQuadrant, PostgreSQL, Tomas' PlanetPostgreSQL
Although in the future most database servers (particularly those handling OLTP-like workloads) will use a flash-based storage, we're not there yet - flash storage is still considerably more expensive than traditional hard drives, and so many systems use a mix of SSD and HDD drives. That however means we need to decide how to split the database - what should go to the spinning rust (HDD) and what is a good candidate for the flash storage that is more expensive but much better at handling random I/O. There are solutions that try to handle this automatically at the storage level by automatically using SSDs as a cache, automatically keeping the active part of the data on SSD. Storage appliances / SANs often do this internally, there are hybrid SATA/SAS drives with large HDD and small SSD in (more…)